António de Oliveira Salazar
Prime Minister of Portugal
Died when: 81 years 90 days (974 months)
Star Sign: Taurus
António de Oliveira Salazar GCSE, GCIC, GCTE, GColIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu dɨ oliˈvɐjɾɐ sɐlɐˈzaɾ]; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese politician and economist who served as Prime Minister of Portugal for 36 years, from 1932 to 1968. Salazar founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the corporatist authoritarian government that ruled Portugal until 1974.After the Portuguese coup d'état of 28 May 1926, Salazar entered public life with the support of President Óscar Carmona, initially as finance minister and later as prime minister. Opposed to democracy, communism, socialism, anarchism and liberalism, the ideology of Portugal was conservative and nationalist in nature under his rule. Salazar also promoted Catholicism, but argued that the role of the Church was social, not political, and negotiated the Concordat of 1940.With the Estado Novo enabling him to exercise vast political powers, Salazar used heavy-handed censorship and a ubiquitous secret police to quell opposition, especially that related to the Communist movement. He supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and, like Franco, kept his nation neutral during World War II. The doctrine of Pluricontinentalism was the basis of his territorial policy, a conception of the Portuguese Empire as a unified state that spanned multiple continents. During his rule, Portugal joined the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO) and began the Portuguese Colonial War. The Estado Novo would collapse during the Carnation Revolution of 1974, four years after Salazar's death.