# Johann Benedict Listing

## German mathematician

Died when: 74 years 152 days (892 months)Star Sign: Leo

Johann Benedict Listing (25 July 1808 – 24 December 1882) was a German mathematician.J.B.Listing was born in Frankfurt and died in Göttingen.

He first introduced the term "topology" to replace the older term "geometria situs" (also called sometimes "Analysis situs"), in a famous article published in 1847, although he had used the term in correspondence some years earlier.

He (independently) discovered the properties of the half-twisted strip at the same time (1858) as August Ferdinand Möbius, and went further in exploring the properties of strips with higher-order twists ( rings).

He discovered topological invariants which came to be called Listing numbers.In ophthalmology, Listing's law describes an essential element of extraocular eye muscle coordination.

In geodesy, he coined in 1872 the term geoid for the idealized geometric surface of the figure of Earth.