Prime Minister of AlbaniaDied when: 76 years 177 days (917 months)
Star Sign: Libra
Enver Halil Hoxha (/ˈhɒdʒə/ HO-jə, Albanian: [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa]; 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was an Albanian communist politician who was the authoritarian ruler of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985.
He was First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania from 1941 until his death in 1985.He was also a member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania, chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces and ruled the country from 1944 until his death in 1985.
He was the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times was both foreign minister and defence minister of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.
Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër in 1908 and became a grammar school teacher in 1936.Following the Italian invasion of Albania, he joined the Party of Labour of Albania at its creation in 1941 in the Soviet Union.
He was elected First Secretary in March 1943 at the age of 34.Less than two years after the liberation of the country, the monarchy of King Zog was formally abolished, and Hoxha rose to power as Albania's symbolic head of state.
During his 41-year rule, his government rebuilt the country, which was left in ruins after World War II, building Albania's first railway line, raising the adult literacy rate from 5–15% to more than 90%, wiping out epidemics, electrifying the country and leading Albania towards agricultural independence.
It also outlawed religion, travelling abroad, private proprietorship, and closed or converted to secular uses all of Albania's religious facilities.
His government imprisoned, executed, or exiled thousands of landowners, rural clan leaders, Muslim and Christian clerics, peasants who resisted collectivization, and disloyal party officials.
Hoxha's government was characterised by his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism, i.e.Stalinism, from the mid/late-1960s onwards.
After his break with Maoism in the 1976–1978 period, numerous Maoist parties around the world declared themselves Hoxhaist.The International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organisations (Unity & Struggle) is the best-known association of these parties.