Dutch politicianDied when: 81 years 251 days (980 months)
Star Sign: Sagittarius
Pieter Jacobus Oud (5 December 1886 – 12 August 1968) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) party and later co-founder of the Labour Party (PvdA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and historian.
He was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 9 November 1963.Oud attended the Barlaeus Gymnasium in Amsterdam from May 1889 until June 1904, and applied at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences in June 1904, majoring in civil law notary and obtaining a Bachelor of Civil Law degree in July 1907.
Oud took several curses in accounting from a certified teacher in Gorinchem from July 1907 until April 1909.Oud worked as civil servant for the Ministry of Finance from May 1909 until June 1917 for the department of Budgetary Affairs from May 1909 until September 1911 and as a tax collector for the Fiscal Information and Investigation Service (FIOD) on Texel from September 1911 until February 1914 and in Ommen from February 1914 until June 1917.
Oud applied at the University of Amsterdam in April 1912 for a postgraduate education in Law, graduating with an Master of Laws degree in February 1914.
After the Battle of the Frontiers, Oud was conscripted in the Regiment Infanterie Oranje Gelderland of the Royal Netherlands Army, serving as a Sergeant from August 1914 until November 1916.
Oud was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives in the 1917 general election, taking office on 28 June 1917.Oud also worked as editor-in-chief of the party newspaper De Vrijzinnig-Democraat from 15 May 1919 until 26 May 1933.
After the 1933 election, Oud was appointed as Minister of Finance in the second Colijn cabinet, taking office on 26 May 1933.After the Leader of the Free-thinking Democratic League retired after 19 years he endorsed Oud as his successor.
Marchant stepping down on 18 May 1935 and was succeeded by Oud.The second Colijn cabinet fell on 23 July 1935 and was replaced by the third Colijn cabinet, with Oud continuing to serve as Minister of Finance, taking office on 31 July 1935.
Following the 1937 election, Oud returned to the House of Representatives, taking office on 8 June 1937, but asked Dolf Joekes to remain as Parliamentary leader of the Free-thinking Democratic League in the House of Representatives until 20 September 1937.
The third Colijn cabinet was replaced by the [[fourth Colijn cabinet] on 24 June 1937.In October 1938 Oud was nominated as Mayor of Rotterdam, and he announced his resignation as Leader and Parliamentary leader, endorsing his long-serving deputy Dolf Joekes as his successor.
Oud resigned Leader and Parliamentary leader the day he was installed as Mayor, taking office on 15 October 1938.On 14 May 1940 the Luftwaffe destroyed almost the entire historic city centre of Rotterdam during the German invasion, leading the Dutch government to capitulate the next day.
On 10 October 1941 Oud resigned in protest against the German occupation and was briefly detained in the Ilag Sint-Michielsgestel in the summer of 1942.
During the rest of the German occupation Oud wrote dozens of books on history and politics.Following the end of World War II, Oud was again appointed as Mayor of Rotterdam, taking office on 7 May 1945.
On 9 February 1946 the Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB), the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) chose to merge to form the Labour Party (PvdA).
Oud was one of its co-founders, but left the party a year later, after which he and several other former members of the Free-thinking Democratic League formed the rump party Committee-Oud in February 1947.
On 24 January 1948 the Committee-Oud and the Freedom Party (PvdV) chose to merge to form the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
Oud became the first Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.For the 1948 election, Oud was the lijsttrekker (lead candidate) of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.
The party had six seats in the House of House of Representatives previously held by the Freedom Party and won two additional seats, now having eight seats in the House of Representatives.
Oud again returned as a Member of the House of Representatives and became the party's first Parliamentary leader on 27 July 1948.
The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement between the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Catholic People's Party (KVP), the Labour Party and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) which formed the Drees–Van Schaik cabinet, with Oud opting to remain in the House of Representatives instead of filling a ministerial post.
Oud also served as Chairman of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy from 8 April 1949 until 9 November 1963.Oud served continuously as Leader and Parliamentary leader for the next 15 years and was lijsttrekker for the elections of 1952, 1956 and 1959.
In January 1963, Oud announced his retirement from national politics, stating that he would not stand for the 1963 election.Shortly after the election, on 16 May 1963, Oud stepped down as Leader and Parliamentary leader, and was succeeded as Leader by Edzo Toxopeus and as Parliamentary leader by until Edzo Toxopeus took over as Parliamentary leader on 2 July 1963 but retained his seat in the House of Representatives and continued to serve as a backbencher until the end of the parliamentary term on 5 June 1963.
Following the end of his active political career, Oud occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director for supervisory boards in the business and industry world and for supervisory boards for several international non-governmental organisations and research institutes (Royal Dutch Shell, Philips, Van Lanschot, Netherlands Atlantic Association, Carnegie Foundation and the Royal Netherlands Historical Society) and served on several state commissions on behalf of the government.